In In [[M21-S2 - Article - Distance Still Matters]] Administrative or Political Distance is first defined in terms of Historical and political associations shared by countries. This greatly affect trade between them. Colony-colonizer links between countries, for example, boost trade by 900%, which is perhaps not too surprising given Britain’s continuing ties with its former colonies in the commonwealth, France’s with the franc zone of West Africa, and Spain’s with Latin America. Preferential trading arrangements, common currency, and political union can also increase trade by more than 300% each. The integration of the European Union is probably the leading example of deliberate efforts to diminish administrative and political distance among trading partners.